; bacteria is naturally feminine (like in most European
3rd person pronouns people
In standard Vernacular Chinese, there was originally no such distinction the third person pronoun was always t. In modern written Chinese, this was split into (males), (females), (animals) and (inanimate objects). This distinction is purely orthographic and has no real syntactic or morphological significance.
In Classical Chinese, since there were about as many pronouns as there were nouns (OK, I exaggerate), there were probably some that restricted the antecedent (I can think of any at the moment). However, the most common ones, such as (nominative or objective), (nominative or genitive) and (objective) applied to all sorts of antecedents. but maybe it does not work in the same way in all Canada Goose online Slavic languages. I am sure only about Czech.
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In uk canada goose outlet Russian (I do not speak other Slavic languages) there are three grammatical genders, so technically we do not have the inanimate “it”, it canadian goose jacket is only she, he, he/it (neutral). All of these (including the neuter pronoun) can be used with things, animals and people according to the word grammatical gender. So it is not different from, say, French, except for the additional neuter canada goose factory sale gender.
ADDITION: by the way, I don think your statement re: English is accurate. a mother goose walking with babies would be referred to a she; a buck with antlers as a he) or an animal who is kown to the speaker (I never heard people refer to their or others pets or horses as it). She is sometimes also used with inanimate Canada Goose Parka objects, such as boats. a mother goose walking with babies would be referred to a she; a buck with antlers as a he) or an animal who is kown to the speaker (I never heard people refer to their or others pets or horses as it). She is sometimes also used canada goose store with inanimate objects, such as boats.
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I think that an Americanism, and not extensively used in BrE. Perhaps a native speaker of BrE might correct me or confirm me?
In Old English, personal pronouns agreed with the grammatical gender of the noun they were referring to: he referred to male humans and masculine nouns, heo to female humans and feminine nouns, and hit to neuter nouns.
However, in contexts https://www.goosesale.ca where a pronoun referred to an indefinite topic, the neuter form hit could be used, as in modern English: Ic hit eom “It is I” / “It me”.
The same may have been true in contexts where a pronoun referred to an adjacent context or statement (as in Modern English, It great that you back, or Wow, it hot in here!), but I not sure how Old English would have rendered such sentences.
In Macedonian, the third person singular pronouns are “o”, “”, and “o”, for replacing masculine, feminine and neuter nouns respectively, and canada goose uk black friday there is a single plural buy canada goose jacket cheap form “”. All four of these pronouns are used to refer to people, other living entities, natural phenomena, abstract concepts, objects, and so on in other words, they can be used to refer to anything that can be denoted by a noun. Since Macedonian is a pro drop language, these pronouns are not used that frequently to begin with, so they may sound strange in some cases when being used to refer to non humans, but they are correct either way. By the way, it is noteworthy that colloquially (at least in Skopje), these pronouns are often (in some persons speech, completely) replaced with “o”, “o”, “oo”, and “o”, but these forms are not accepted by the standard language. those meaning “that” and “those”. the colloquial one (the one found in BCS, Czech, Russian) corresponds to the medial demonstrative pronouns (though the forms are not identical, as the medial demonstrative pronouns are in fact “oo”, “o”, “o”, and “o”, whereas there is full overlapping between the distal demonstrative pronouns and their forms as personal pronouns). “o” buy canada goose jacket to be used for any animal, regardless of how complex it is, though it may be allowed in cases where one is more familiar with the animal in question. Canada Goose Online For example, if one is visiting a friend with two dogs of the same breed, and one comes into the room, one might ask “who is this?”, asking whether it is the first or second dog. However, one would always say canada goose clearance “what bit you?”, “what crossed the street in front of us?” and the like.
As for the discussion about bacteria, bacteria are not animals, and it Canada Goose sale doesn have anything to do with them not having souls, regardless of the canada goose coats etymology of the word “animal”. Bacteria are not animals due to evolutionary/genetic history of development and multiple distinctive features, such as being prokaryotic and unicellular. They are classified not only in a different kingdom from animals but also a different domain. Animals are classified in Kingdom Animalia and furthermore in the domain Eukaryota, along with plants, fungi and protists, uk canada goose but not bacteria or archaea. Bacteria are not animals due to Canada Goose Outlet evolutionary/genetic history of development and multiple distinctive features, such as being canada goose clearance sale prokaryotic and unicellular.
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The application of the word “animal” to the who/what distinction in languages (“for our purposes”) has nothing to do with biological classification (genetic or any other) and everything to do with having souls Canada Goose Jackets (which term I made specific by a description what it means to have a soul). The note about etymology was merely a side note and an illustration, as evidenced by its being put in parentheses.
As for the discussion of the who/what distinctions in general, it is partly pertinent here, because it is naturally interesting to compare the use of personal pronouns in relation to animate/non animate things (here called animals/non animals for shortness) with any other means to differentiate between them in a given language. For any discussion like that, and also for any discussion of this canada goose uk shop topic in relation only to pronouns, it is important to see which things may be called animate and which things may be cheap Canada Goose not.
1) Canada Goose Coats On Sale In plural the inanimate masculine nouns morphologically “behave” like the feminine nouns. brambory (= potatoes), ony in plur. either on (brambor, inanim. masc.) or ona (brambora, fem.) in sing. (a potatoe).
2) The animals including mollusca, insecta, etc. (even slaneci = salted herrings) are canada goose black friday sale animate (grammatically, of course), however it is canada goose important only in the masculine gender. brouk (beetle) is masculine animate, so on in sing. oni in plur., but virus and bacillus are inanimate masculine for unknown reason, on canada goose uk outlet in sing. ony in plur.; bacteria is naturally feminine (like in most European languages), ona in sing. ony canada goose coats on sale in plur.
3) Some things are or optionally can be animate (snowmen, scarecrows, robots, ice breakers, .), thus cheap canada goose uk on in sing. oni in plur. dve (little girl), vnoue (little grandson), ono in sing., ona in plur.
5) The diminutives follow the original gender (like in Latin: homo > homunculus masc., avis > aviuncula fem., corpus > corpusculum neuter).
In the Slavic languages the situation concerning the third person personal pronouns is more complicated. We have discussed only the nominative case of the pronouns. However there are canada goose outlet sale other cases, namely genitive, dative, accusative, locative and instrumental.
For the 3rd person the Slavic languages use the anaphoric pronoun j, ja, je (m. f. n.) in all cases except nominative. In the nominative case (both sing. and plur.) the anaphoric pronoun j/ja/je was replaced by demonstrative pronouns, either on, ona, ono (in most Slavic languages) or t, ta, to (for Makedonian see post 23).
In Portuguese the 3rd. person singular pronouns are ele and ela. Each of them may be used with people, animals, or things, according to the grammatical gender of the noun being referred to.